Recent studies have reported that host microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate infections by several types of viruses via various mechanisms and that inhibition of the miRNA processing factors enhances or prevents viral infection. However, it has not been clarified whether these effects of miRNAs extend to adenovirus (Ad) infection. Here we show that miR-27a and -b efficiently inhibit infection with an Ad via the downregulation of SNAP25 and TXN2, which are members of the SNARE proteins and the thioredoxin family, respectively. Approximately 80% reductions in Ad genomic copy number were found in cells transfected with miR-27a/b mimics, whereas there were approximately 2.5- to 5-fold larger copy numbers of the Ad genome following transfection with miR-27a/b inhibitors. Microarray gene expression analysis and in silico analysis demonstrated that SNAP25 and TXN2 are target genes of miR-27a/b. A reporter assay using plasmids containing the 3′ untranslated regions of the SNAP25 and TXN2 genes showed that miR-27a/b directly suppressed SNAP25 and TXN2 expression through posttranscriptional gene silencing. Knockdown of SNAP25 led to a significant inhibition of Ad entry into cells. Knockdown of TX...